The Holy Qur’an is in Arabic and could only have been written by one of three possible sources:
- The Arabs
- Muhammad (peace be upon him, pbuh)
- Allah (God)
Besides the above mentioned sources, the Qur’an couldn’t possibly have been written by anyone else. No other source is possible, because the Qur’an is written in pure, rich, and poetic Arabic, which was not known to anyone other than the above mentioned sources, at that time. The Arabic language was at its peak in expression, richness, vocabulary, artistic, and poetic value during the time the Qur’an was being revealed. Anyone speaking the classical Arabic (the Arabic of the Qur’an at the time it was revealed) would argue that a non-Arab entity couldn’t possibly have written such an extensive and brilliant piece of literature in the Arabic language. The Qur’an could only have been written by an Arabic speaking entity.
An entity, who’s knowledge, style, vocabulary, grammar, and way of expression was so powerful that it impacted the entire Arabian Peninsula, the east, the west, and continues to impact people centuries later all around the globe.
At no other time in the history of Arabic language had it ever achieved its peak in expression, literature, and development than the time of Arabia during the 6th Century, the time when the Qur’an was being revealed. With the Arabic language at its peak and the best of Arabic writers, poets present in Arabia, it is impossible that a non-Arabic speaking entity would write a book like Qur’an and have such a dynamite impact on the Arabs.
Let’s examine the three choices one by one.
- Arabs Wrote it?
What the Qur’an teaches goes directly against the pagan Arab culture, religion, and gods, that existed before the Qur’an was revealed. The Qur’an condemns idol worshipping, but the Arabs, loved their idol gods, and worshipped them regularly. The Qur’an raised the status of women; the Arabs treated women next to animals. The Arabs would never write something that goes against their most important belief of idol worshipping. The Qur’an goes against most of the social habits (such as backbiting, slandering, name calling, etc.) which the Arabs were heavily indulged into. For example, the Arabs would call insulting nicknames such as Abu Jahal (the father of ignorance). The Qur’an condemns and prohibits taking interest on money, whereas, the Arabs freely levied heavy interest rates in loans and businesses. The Qur’an condemns and prohibits alcohol drinking, whereas, the Arabs consumed alcohol freely. The Qur’an condemns and prohibits gambling, whereas, the Arabs were some of the worst gamblers. The Arabs would never write something so comprehensively against just about all of their customs and culture and religious beliefs, as the Qur’an is.
During the time of the Holy Prophet (pbuh), the Arabs would indulge in all the social habits that the Qur’an condemns and prohibits. How can Arabs then write something that would negate their entire society’s norms and ideologies?
Did a group of Arabs or an individual Arab write the Qur’an? Perhaps a rebel Arab Bedouin, or a society’s misfit, or someone with different ideals and norms decided one day to write the Qur’an? The answer to those questions are also ‘no’. Because, if we read Qur’an, we notice that there is no author! No individual has his/her name written on the cover of the Qur’an! No one in the history of the world has EVER claimed to have written the Qur’an, No one in the world has ever been accused of writing the Holy Qur’an, except the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) by people of other faiths.
The Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was the only Arabian who first practiced, explained, and preached the Qur’an, and ended up making a lot of Arab tribes enemies. Any historian, Muslim or non-Muslim would argue that the only possible source of the Qur’an can be the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), the man responsible to recite it, teach it, and explain it to the people of Arabia. In fact, many historians today still think that only Muhammad (pbuh) could possibly have written it.
This leads one to conclude that the Prophet (pbuh) must have written it!
- Muhammad (pbuh) wrote it?
First, he was totally illiterate! How can an illiterate person come up with such a rich, poetic, intellectual, and inspiring text that it rocked the entire Arabia? Muhammad (pbuh) never went to school. No one taught him. He had no teacher of any kind in any subjects. How can he have the knowledge of all the science, astronomy, oceanography, etc., that is contained in the Qur’an? There are for example the mention of ocean currents, stars, earth, moon, sun and their fixed paths, as well as many other scientific statements that are found in the Qur’an.
When the Qur’an was revealed, the Arabic language was at its peak in richness, poetic value, literature, etc. The Qur’an came and challenged the best literature in Arabic, the best poetry in Arabic of the time to produce a single chapter like that of the Qur’an.
And if you are in doubt as to what We have revealed from time to time to Our servant, then produce a Sura like thereunto; and call your witnesses or helpers (If there are any) besides Allah, if your (doubts) are true. [The Holy Qur’an 2:23]
Muhammad (pbuh) being illiterate couldn’t possibly have come up with something so immaculate that it even exceeded the best of poetry and literature in Arabic at the time of the language’s peak development. Arabic language had never been so rich in expression, poetic value, vocabulary, and variety in literature, as it was at the time of the Qur’an. It not another book, but exceeded the best of Arabic in all aspects of the language: poetry, literature, expression, etc. Any classical Arabic speaker would appreciate the unbeaten, unchallenged, and unmatched beauty of the language of the Qur’an.
Muhammad (pbuh) had no reason to come up with something like the Qur’an and cause the entire society of Arabia to become his enemy. Why would he do something like that? Why would he write something going against almost all of the norms of the society, and lose his family, relatives, friends, and other loved ones, and not to mention all the wealth he lost?
The Qur’an was revealed over a period of 23 years. A very long time! Is it possible for someone to maintain the same exact style of Arabic speech, as demonstrated in the Qur’an, for over 23 years?
Also, what the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) used to say is recorded in what we call his Hadith. If we look at the Arabic style of the Hadith and compare it with the style of the Qur’an, we can see that they are clearly different and distinguishable Arabic styles. The Prophet (pbuh) spoke in public and his spoken style is wholly different to the way the Qur’an is presented. Yet another reason why Muhammad (pbuh) could not possibly have written the Qur’an.
It is He who has sent among the unlettered a Messenger from themselves reciting to them His verses and purifying them and teaching them the Book and wisdom – although they were before in clear error. (The Holy Qur’an 62:2)
The Conclusion: The Qur’an is the word of God.
The Qur’an has retained its original pure form for over 14 centuries not a letter or word has changed. Allah has promised to safeguard it from corruption
We have, without doubt, sent down the Message; and We will assuredly guard it (from corruption). (The Holy Qur’an 15:9)
No falsehood can approach it from before or behind it: It is sent down by One full of Wisdom, Worthy of all Praise. (The Holy Qur’an 41:42)